Living cells ultimately depend on the conversion of energy derived from foodstuff and light into the chemical form of energy. This crucial bioenergetic step is performed in the membrane systems of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Each one of these organelle types has developed dedicated gene expression and assembly machineries that have diverged from the cytosolic counterparts. While mitoribosomes synthesize proteins involved in the oxidative phosphorylation, chlororibosomes produce components driving the photosynthetic reactions through pigment-protein units. To dissect the mechanism and dynamics of how the bioenergetic units that fuel life become to be, the lab members employ structural, functional and evolutionary analysis.